Goniometer BI-200SM for static light scattering (SLS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements is used to determine at variable angles absolute molecular weight Mw, size (Rg, Rh), second virial coefficient A2, conformations of kind of macromolecules (polymers and proteins) and particles in solution.
Optical Microscope Zeiss Axio Imager A2M for reflected and transmitted light with Linkam Heating/Freezing Stages (-196°C to 600°C) used for crystal analysis of 10 mm or larger crystals, determination of optical path differences or strain measurements, thermo-microscopy for studying the crystallization behavior of polymers, etc.
RSA-G2 Dynamic Mechanical analyzer DMA (TA Instruments) measures the mechanical properties resulting from changes in five experimental variables: temperature, time, frequency, force, and strain. The deformation can be applied sinusoidally, in a constant (or step fashion), or under a fixed rate. The DMA uses samples that can be in bulk solid, film, fiber, gel, or viscous liquid form. Interchangeable clamps are employed to allow you to measure many properties, including: modulus, damping, creep, stress relaxation, glass transitions, and softening points. The unit is fitted with liquid nitrogen cooling giving an effective test temperature of -150 to 600oC.
Pressure Reactor Polyclave (Buchi) is fitted with high
performance thermostats, mass flow and pressure controllers and
datalogging to allow exact monitoring and control of reaction
parameters. It is able to operate at high pressure
(up to 60 bar) and high temperature (up to 250°C) with volume between
0,5 to 5 L.. Polyclave is used to carry out a variety of catalyic reactions (e.g. hydrogenation reaction) and polymrization reactions.
High Pressure Reactor Midiclave (Buchi) is fitted with
high performance thermostats, mass flow and pressure controllers and
datalogging to allow exact monitoring and control of reaction
parameters, It is able to operate at high pressure (up to 200 bar)
and high temperature (up to 300°C) with volume between 0,1 to 1 L..
Midiclave is used to carry out a variety of catalytic reactions.
In order to achieve the desired
levels of purity for controlled anionic polymerization, all monomers,
reactants, and solvents should be purified, dried, and degassed, preferably on
the vacuum line. Solvents are distilled directly into the requisite glass
reactors followed by
flame sealing from the vacuum line. Ampules contain monomers or
functionalizing agents or
terminating agent such as degassed methanol. Empty Ampules equipped with a degassed
methanol tube are used to remove a base sample of the living polymer for molecular characterization.
Differential refractometer BI-DNDC is used in batch mode to measure the specific refractive index increment, dn/dc.
Two Malvern Viscotek TDA 305 GPC in THF and in chloroform are used for the determination of the absolute molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity and branching structures of natural and synthetic polymers, copolymers and other complex macromolecules.
Schlenk Line (High Vacuum Manifold) which is equipped with a
5-port, dual manifold vacuum line and connected with an advanced vacuum system
(Edwards oil rotary vane pumps and cryobath) are often suitable for carrying
out routine polymerization reactions. With this system, a
high vacuum level of about 10-4 mm.Hg can
be very easily reached in a short time. This instrument can be used for
manipulating air sensitive compounds, especially for performing special
polymerization techniques such as controlled/living radical polymerization,
anionic polymerization, cationic polymerization, polyhomologation, etc.
Agilent GPC with Wyatt modules for Triple Detection (RI (Optilab T-rEX), MALS (DAWN HELEOS II) and Viscometer (Viscostar II)) is used in N,N-dimethyl formamide DMF for the determination of the absolute molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity and branching structures of polyNIPAM, n-substituted polyacrylamide, polypeptides, polypeptoid, that requiere temperature of 60°C to stay in solution.
High vacuum lines are designed to provide a vacuum in
the 10-5 to 10-6mm. Hg region. By combining two types of vacuum pumps
(i.e., oil rotary vane and mercury diffusion) in conjunction with
two-stage glass manifold, these versatile systems can evacuate in a very
short time schlenks and glass apparatuses/reactors for performing
special polymerization techniques such as living anionic polymerization.
Malvern Viscotek HT-GPC Triple Detection (RI, LALS and Viscometerry) in 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzen TCB is used for determination of the absolute molecular weight, intrinsec viscosity, molecular seize and branching structure of polyolefines, polythiofene, PEEK, PVF that requiere temperature up to 160°C to stay in solution. (Two units)
DynaPro Nanostar (Wyatt) for Dynamic Light Scattering
(DLS) measures time dependence
of light scattering intensity change. The Stokes-Einstein relation
allows us to
calculate the hydrodynamic radius Rh (lower limit ~ 0.5 nm and upper
500 nm) from the translational diffusion constant Dt. The DLS is used to
determine the hydrodynamic radius of all kind of particles in solution.
Osmomat 070 vapour pressure osmometer is used for the determination of the absolute number-average molecular
weights of polymer in organic and aqueous solvents with high precision.
UniLab Glovebox with oxygen and water sensors is used for manipulating air sensitive compounds (organometallic complexes), especially for performing special polymerization techniques such as living cationic polymerization and ring-opening metathesis polymerization.
Osmomat 090 membrane osmometer is used for the determination of the absolute number-average molecular weight of polymer in the range 5,000 to 200,000
g/mol in organic solvents at an operational temperature of 30°C to 130°C.
18-angle light scattering Dawn Heleos II for static light scattering (SLS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements is used in batch or microbatch mode (off-line) for the determination of the absolute weight-average molecular weight, sizes (radius of gyration Rg and hydrodynamic radius Rh), second virial coefficient (A2) and conformation of all types of macromolecules and particles in solution such as proteins, biopolymers, polymers and particles, liposomes, micelles, encapsulated proteins and many more. MALS provides absolute measurements because they are made without reference to molar mass standards, column calibration, or molecular conformation.
The viscosity measuring station with the ViscoSystem AVS 470 is used to measure flow time of synthetic polymer solutions, through a
capillary tube of a viscometer place in constant temperature immersion
circulator. AVS unit memorizes times of
flows and calculates average time of flow, the kinetic viscosity
and other types of viscosities, like dynamic viscosity or intrinsic
viscosity. The technique can be used to measure solution
viscosities in the range of 0.35 to 30,000 centipoise for a solution density of
1 g/mL. The viscosity measurements are used to deduce intrinsic viscosities and molecular weights
of the polymer and their degree of branching.
Agilent Preparative GPC is used for the fractionation and analysis of several grams of natural or synthetic polymers.
Living Polymerization which does not involve spontaneous termination might lead in the presence of impurities to an unusual and detrimental distribution of molecular weights of such polymer. GC-MS system can separate the different compounds of a mixture by gas chromatography (GC) before identifying the various components by mass spectromter (MS). The GC-MS will be used in a daily basis to identify and to measure the fraction of impurities contain in monomers, initiators, linking agents and solvents during purification.
Thermo Scientific Lumina Fluorescence Spectrometer is used to examine photophysical properties of molecules, conformational changes, fluorescence anisotropy, determining quantum yields as well as to measure phosphorescence and chemiluminescence.
Thermo Scientific Evolution 300 UV Visible Spectrophotometer is used to measures absorbance of light in the ultraviolet and visible ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is suitable for testing the samples both in solid or liquid form.
Thermo Scientific Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer is used to identify unknown samples, as well as for following the kinetics of polymerizations.
Differential scanning calorimetry DSC allows the measurements of thermal properties of a polymer sample (specific heat, transition temperature, latent heat). DSC provides useful information about: melting points, glass transition temperatures, crystallinity, heat capacity, thermal stability and transformation temperatures of polymers.
The ReactIR™ 45m is a dedicated Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) instrument for monitoring reactions across a wide range of temperature and pressure conditions, and is ideal for kinetics and quantitative analysis.